In the U.S., 10 percent of young children aged two to five are categorized as obese. The latest findings from the landmark Nestlé Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) reveal that, as early as 12 to 24 months, children are beginning to develop some unhealthy dietary patterns that may contribute to childhood obesity. Two and three year olds are falling short of the USDA MyPlate and AHA/AAP Dietary Guidelines for Children. In particular, young children do not consume enough vegetables or whole grains and they consume far too many calories from solid fats and added sugar.
We're seeing poor eating habits starting early in life, and they mirror those of older children and adults. Parents and caregivers need to know that eating patterns are set early -- between 12 to 24 months. It's crucial to establish the foundation for healthy diets early in life when eating habits and food preferences are being formed, said Dr. Kathleen Reidy, DrPH, RD, Head, Nutrition Science, Nestlé Infant Nutrition. The new findings show how simple changes can make significant improvements in children's diets.
The new data from Nestlé FITS provides us with insights about the evolution of children's diets, from birth through preschool, including sources of calories, key nutrients and snacking patterns. Highlights include:
DIETARY PATTERNS ARE SET BY 24 MONTHS OF AGE
At 12 - 24 months, a diet low in fruits and veggies and high in sweets and saturated fats begins to develop. This pattern is established by 24 months, continues through the preschool years and mimics some of the unhealthy eating habits seen in older children and adults. By age four, fruits and vegetables make up a small portion of the diet, about five percent of calories, and more than 15 percent of calories consumed are from sweets. Most preschoolers are still consuming whole or two percent milk, which accounts for about 30 percent of the saturated fat in their diets. And, on a given day, 75 percent of preschoolers are consuming too much saturated fat.
BETWEEN-MEAL EATING OCCASIONS ACCOUNT FOR A LARGE PORTION OF A CHILD'S CALORIES
Beginning at 12 months, one-third of calories comes from between-meal eating occasions, and, on a given day, snacks contribute about 30 percent of calories among preschoolers, so these choices need to be nutritious. Cookies, candy and crackers are the most popular snacks among toddlers and preschoolers, with snacks becoming less nutritious as children age.
SMALL DIETARY CHANGES-BIG IMPACT
Simple dietary changes can lead to important improvements in the quality of children's diets. FITS findings illustrate that parents and caregivers need better nutrition guidance as young children transition through the second year of life to help develop healthy eating habits.
1. Snacks should be considered mini-meals and parents and caregivers should offer healthy foods that contribute nutrition to a child's diet, such as fruits, vegetables, low fat yogurt and dairy and whole grain foods. Instead of sugar-sweetened beverages, offer water.
2. At age two, children should drink one percent or skim milk, in place of whole or two percent milk.
3. Other foods high in saturated fat such as cheese and high fat meats like hot dogs and bacon should be limited.
4. Replace with foods lower in saturated fat such as fruits and vegetables, lean meats and low fat dairy foods.
5. Children also need healthier fats from foods like avocado and fish, and foods made with canola, safflower and olive oils.
We are all responsible for the health of future generations, and it is much easier to establish good habits when children are young than to try to correct poor habits later, says Dr. Jose Saavedra, M.D., FAAP, Medical Director, Nestlé Nutrition. Parents need consistent messages about how to feed young children in a healthy way. If we can help educate parents on the big impact of relatively simple dietary changes, we may be able to help prevent obesity and chronic disease in our children.